The “writing process” refers to the various stages of writing, which typically include: pre-writing, drafting, and revising or rewriting. While these are referred to as stages in a process, most writers don’t proceed through them in a strictly linear order. Rather, the writing process is often recursive; sometimes in the process of drafting, for example, you may find that you need to do more pre-writing.

I have collected some useful handouts below to assist you in the various stages of the writing process:


Before You Start Writing that Paper … A Guide to Prewriting Techniques (Berkeley Student Learning Center)
Brainstorming (UNC Writing Center)


Going Beyond the Five-Paragraph Essay (Cal Poly Pomona University Writing Center)

Argument Essay (Duke TWP Writing Studio)
Developing a Central Claim (Duke TWP Writing Studio)

A Short Guide to Academic Writing Style (Duke TWP Writing Studio)
The First Person in Academic Writing (Duke TWP Writing Studio)


Techniques and Strategies
Reverse Outlining (Duke TWP Writing Studio)
Revision Strategies

Responding and Getting Responses
Providing Feedback: HOCs & LOCs (Duke TWP Writing Studio)
Getting Feedback (UNC Writing Center)